In rare circumstances, some children are born with a heart defect or disease which, if not treated properly, can prove to be fatal. These are called Critical Congenital Heart Disease (CCHD), and they are of the following types:
1.) Aortic Valve Stenosis
It is an uncommon but serious heart defect which makes up for 5% of congenital heart disease. When aortic valve, the valve which controls the flow of blood from the left ventricle to aorta, is narrowed, this condition is called Aortic Valve Stenosis. This lowers the amount of oxygen-rich blood flowing from the heart to other organs of the body and, thus, heart muscles thicken because they have to work harder to pump blood.
2.) Coarctation of Aorta
Coarctation of Aorta (CoAo) is when the Aorta itself is narrowed and less blood flows through it. This can occur either by itself or in combination with other heart defects. The most common heart defect that occurs with CoA is patent ductus arteriosus or ventricular septal defect.